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分析抹灰砂浆的3大错误认知

来源: 日期:2022-09-14 发布人:juyehe

凡涂抹在建筑物或建筑构件表面的砂浆,统称为抹面砂浆。根据抹面砂浆功能的不同,可将抹面砂浆分为普通抹面砂浆、装饰砂浆和具有某些特殊功能的抹面砂浆。下面来分析下济南抹灰砂浆的3大错误认知。
Mortar applied on the surface of buildings or building components is collectively referred to as plastering mortar. According to the different functions of plastering mortar, plastering mortar can be divided into ordinary plastering mortar, decorative mortar and plastering mortar with some special functions. Here are three major misconceptions of Jinan plastering mortar.
误区一:抹灰砂浆的强度越大越好预
Myth 1: The greater the strength of plastering mortar, the better
拌抹灰砂浆的强度等级从M5~M20不等,常用的强度等级是M5和M10。
The strength grade of plastering mortar varies from M5 to M20, and the commonly used strength grades are M5 and M10.
对于抹灰砂浆来说,不同的基材要求的砂浆强度等级也不尽相同,这与基材和砂浆层的弹性模量差有关,弹性模量相差越大,出现空鼓开裂的风险就越大。标号越大,意味着水泥用量越大,也就意味着水泥水化时砂浆的收缩率就越大。
For plastering mortar, different base materials require different mortar strength grades, which is related to the difference between the elastic modulus of the base material and the mortar layer. The greater the difference between the elastic modulus, the greater the risk of hollowing and cracking. The larger the grade is, the greater the amount of cement is, which means the greater the shrinkage of mortar when the cement is hydrated.
收缩率相差越大,砂浆与基材产生的应力越大,造成砂浆开裂的风险越大。抹灰砂浆作用主要是保护基层和找平,因此抹灰强度只需要达到标号要求就可以,强度过高意义不大,反而增加无谓的成本。
The greater the difference in shrinkage, the greater the stress generated by mortar and base material, and the greater the risk of mortar cracking. The function of plastering mortar is mainly to protect the base course and level, so the plastering strength only needs to meet the requirements of the mark. It is not significant to have too high strength, but it increases the unnecessary cost.
误区二:抹灰砂浆的保水性越高越好
Mistake 2: The higher the water retention of plastering mortar, the better
控制抹灰砂浆的保水率主要作用是保证砂浆在凝结硬化前,砂浆中的水不被基层吸收,不因失水过快而导致砂浆中的水泥没有水分水化,从而降低砂浆本身强度和砂浆与基层的粘结强度。
The main function of controlling the water retention rate of the plastering mortar is to ensure that the water in the mortar will not be absorbed by the base course before the mortar is set and hardened, and that the cement in the mortar will not be hydrated due to rapid water loss, thus reducing the strength of the mortar itself and the bonding strength between the mortar and the base course.
水泥理论上完全水化所需水分是水泥质量的26%,所以,只要抹灰砂浆的保水性能保证砂浆可操作性和砂浆中水泥水化所需水分即可。
In theory, the water required for complete hydration of cement is 26% of the cement quality. Therefore, as long as the water retention performance of plastering mortar ensures the operability of mortar and the water required for cement hydration in mortar.
如果抹灰砂浆保水性太好,那么砂浆中实际所保留的水分就多,砂浆真实水灰比就大,砂浆的实际强度就低,与块材粘结强度也相应低。
If the water retention property of plastering mortar is too good, there will be more water actually retained in the mortar, the true water cement ratio of the mortar will be large, the actual strength of the mortar will be low, and the bonding strength with the block will be correspondingly low.
但如此也会影响水泥浆与基层的粘结,并将延长砂浆的凝结时间,产生表干内湿的“结皮”现象,从而影响抹灰速度,并增加施工难度。
However, this will also affect the bonding between the cement paste and the base course, and will extend the setting time of the mortar, resulting in a "skinning" phenomenon of dry surface and wet inside, which will affect the plastering speed and increase the construction difficulty.
济南抹灰砂浆
误区三:抹灰砂浆的用水量越少越好
Mistake 3: The less water is used for plastering mortar, the better
抹灰砂浆需水量的因素很多,主要是取决于原材料,包括胶凝材料和细骨料,其中骨料的用量大,因此其材质的优劣能影响砂浆的需水量。
There are many factors affecting the water demand of plastering mortar, mainly depending on raw materials, including cementitious materials and fine aggregate, in which the amount of aggregate is large, so the quality of its material can affect the water demand of mortar.
对于河砂来说,干混砂浆需水量的合理范围一般在13~16%(这里需水量指水与干料的比),而机制砂砂浆需水量的合理范围一般在13~15%,超过大需水量时砂浆的保水率会降低,容重增大,施工性会变得不好,强度降低,因此减少砂浆的需水量是需的,砂浆厂可以通过加入有减水作用的外加剂来进行调节。
For river sand, the reasonable range of water demand for dry mixed mortar is generally 13~16% (water demand here refers to the ratio of water to dry material), while the reasonable range of water demand for machine-made sand mortar is generally 13~15%. When the water demand exceeds a large amount, the water retention rate of mortar will decrease, the unit weight will increase, the constructability will become poor, and the strength will decrease. Therefore, it is necessary to reduce the water demand for mortar, The mortar plant can be adjusted by adding additives with water reducing effect.
然而,当需水量小于特定的范围时,砂浆的施工性能同样会变差,主要表现在浆体饱满程度不够,砂浆不好收面,对于机制砂来说可能造成砂浆发粘,影响施工性。对于具有减水作用的砂浆外加剂,当其减水效率超过一定限度时,砂浆流动性也会随之增加,可能会造成砂浆上墙后出现流挂现象。
However, when the water demand is less than a specific range, the construction performance of mortar will also become worse, which is mainly reflected in the insufficient fullness of the mortar and poor finishing of the mortar, which may cause the mortar to become sticky for the machine-made sand and affect the workability. For mortar admixtures with water reducing effect, when its water reducing efficiency exceeds a certain limit, the fluidity of mortar will also increase, which may cause sagging phenomenon after the mortar is mounted on the wall.
干混抹灰砂浆的需水量根据材料不同,其合理范围也不尽相同,需水量太多或太少都会不利于达到砂浆的佳状态,因此,需要掌握好砂浆需水量的合理范围。
The reasonable range of water demand for dry mixed plastering mortar varies according to different materials. Too much or too little water demand will not be conducive to achieving the good state of mortar. Therefore, it is necessary to master the reasonable range of water demand for mortar.
要注意,各层抹灰面的作用和要求不同,每层所选用的砂浆也不一样。同时,基底材料的特性和工程部位不同,对砂浆技术性能要求不同,这也是选择砂浆种类的主要依据。更多关于改材料的问题或者需求都可以来我们网站咨询了解。
It should be noted that the function and requirements of each layer of plastering surface are different, and the mortar selected for each layer is also different. At the same time, the characteristics of base materials and project parts are different, and the requirements for mortar technical performance are different, which is also the main basis for selecting mortar types. More questions or needs about changing materials can come to our website Ask about it.